History of Introduction and Spread Top of page Dogwood anthracnose was first reported in the USA in 1978 on flowering dogwoods (Cornus florida) in north-eastern states (New York and Connecticut). 1996). 1993. As of 1999, anthracnose had killed 49.7 percent of the native dogwood trees in 24 western counties of North Carolina (USFS 2001). The disease usually starts on lower leaves and progresses into twigs and branches. The New York Times. Leaves may wither, turn brown and remainattached to the twigs (Figure 4). This makes it very easy for a tree that battled Anthracnose last year to re-contract the fungus this year. Effects of tree placement on dogwood anthracnose severity and lesion growth rates in urban landscapes and wooded areas. Stem dieback from dogwood anthracnose (, Terrestrial (land-dwelling) invasive species, Aquatic (Water-Dwelling) Invasive Species, Public Outreach and Education Materials (Invasive species), Climate Change Impacts on Forest Diseases. Fungicides for gardeners (Adobe Acrobat pdf document outlining fungicides available to gardeners), Chemicals: using a sprayer 72:199-203. and R.M. Dogwood Anthracnose is a very common and visually unappealing disease to which the Cornus florida is extremely susceptible. Results of the 1991 dogwood anthracnose impact assessment and pilot test in the southeastern United States. Anthracnose spreads and thrives in wet conditions. Host Plants: Dogwood anthracnose infects flowering ( Cornus florida) and Pacific dogwoods ( C. nuttallii ). A particular variety of Cornus florida that has been bred for, among other qualities, its resistance to dogwood anthracnose and powdery mildew, the Appalachian spring dogwood blooms every spring with gorgeous white bracts surrounding yellow flowers. Dogwood anthracnose: A new disease threatens two native Cornus species. 1992. Plant Disease. p. 31–35. Decline. It was first observed in 1976 affecting a population of Cornus nuttallii in Washington state (Byther and Davidson 1979). References Cited Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Regional Dogwood Workshop. Dogwood leaves also have a high calcium content and decompose rapidly. 1992. Hibben. 1994, SAMAB 1996). Anthracnose caused by the fungus. Ammirati. Daughtrey, J.L., C.R. dogwood that was infected with both diseases and were also inoculated artificially with spores of D. destructiva. 1994). Pest Alert We are seeing: (Cornus florida). The infection is manifested in the form of leaf spots and stem cankers. While the symptoms are similar, the fungi that cause the disease are different from host to host. C. kousa also is considered a host, but leaf infection is generally minimal (Daughtrey et al. Spores are carried by wind and splashing water to susceptible tissues. National strategy for special forest products. 1992. Forest Service Protection Report 26, p. 19. Figures 2-4. A species profile for Dogwood Anthracnose. The decline of dogwood populations resulting from dogwood anthracnose has several serious impacts in the Southern Appalachians. It starts out as very tiny spots with a reddish or purplish border. Plant Disease. By 1995, the disease had been confirmed in northern Georgia (1987), western North Carolina (1988), and as far south as northern Alabama. Nov., Cause of Dogwood Anthracnose. Swank. Their loss could hasten soil acidification, reduce nutrient availability, and influence numerous ecological relationships (Daughtrey and Hibben 1994). Mycologia. Britton, K.O. Management . Distribution of dogwood anthracnose in the Great Smoky Mountain National Park and effects of proximity to water to plots and plot aspects on disease severity. The causal agent is the fungus Discula destructiva, and as the name suggests, this pathogen is highly destructive. Figures 5-6. 1995). Adapted for eXtension.org by Thomas DeGomez, University of Arizona. It was first observed in 1976 affecting a population of Cornus nuttallii in Washington state (Byther and Davidson 1979). During that period, the number of plots with severe epidemics (more than 25 percent of foliage blighted) increased by 638 percent. and M.T. and C.R. Influence of site factors on dogwood anthracnose in the Nantahala Mountain range of western North Carolina. Disease severity in the South seems to be more intense at higher elevations. Two years later, Pirone (1980) noticed a widespread and rapid deterioration of flowering dogwoods in New York and Connecticut (Fig. 1290. 1993. Dogwood anthracnose is a relatively new disease to North America. Overall, vigorous trees tend to be less damaged than weak trees. Leaf blight due to anthracnose on this Cornus kousa. Plant Disease. 1993, Daughtrey and Hibben 1983). 1992, Hoffard et al. Dogwood anthracnose and its spread in the South. Phytopathology. U.S. Forest Service Protection Report R8-PR 23. Southern Region. Two years later, Pirone (1980) noticed a widespread and rapid deterioration of flowering dogwoods in New York and Connecticut (Fig. 1). USDA Forest Service. 1988. Montgomery, and K. Langdon. 77:34-36. 32:61-73. For this reason, ornamentals grown in open, sunny sites are often disfigured without being killed. Infected leaves exhibit marginal leaf scorch, dead patches, reddish discoloration, yellowing and premature defoliation. Britton, M.T. and . Trees that survive one or more seasons of severe anthracnose usually have swollen areas on trunks and branches where cankers were enveloped by new tissue (Daughtrey and Hibben 1994). Powdery Mildew: Erysiphe pulchra (formerly Microsphaera pulchra) is the fungus that attacks leaf surfaces and tender shoots and causes powdery mildew. (ed.). Cornus kousa 'Steeple', a … spp.)-Anthracnose. Two years later, Pirone (1980) noticed a widespread and rapid deterioration of flowering dogwoods in New York and Connecticut (Fig. RHS Garden Hyde Hall Spring and Orchid Show, Free entry to RHS members at selected Daughtrey. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. DOGWOOD ANTHRACNOSE Dogwood anthracnose is considered the most serious disease of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) in Connecticut and the Eastern Seaboard. 1996). The fungus produces very small, pimple-like fruiting bodies on dead leaves and stems and in wet weather minute spores are released from these and  dispersed by rain-splash, wind-blown rain and, probably, by animals and birds. 3(2):20-21. Introduction. In the GSMNP, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the dogwoods have died in heavily shaded cove and alluvial forests. Figure 1. Spraying is not necessary unless leaf or flower diseases were a problem in previous years due to consecutive wet, cool springs. In the Southern Appalachians, mortality is most likely at elevations above 3,000 feet. OSU Plant Clinic Image, 2010. Cornus anthracnose is a fungal disease that kills the leaves and young shoots of some North American Cornus species (dogwoods). Dogwood anthracnose. Jay W. Pscheidt, 2010. In wet weather these spots can rapidly enlarge and kill the entire leaf. Spot anthracnose is more common. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. In the past, anthracnose was the most serious disease of dogwoods in the landscape and our forests but it is now less common. 77: 34-37. In winter months it hides in fallen leaves and dead twigs until the fungus is awakened by rainfall and then spread to the tree’s new growth. 1992). It was first detected in the UK in the late 1990s and was probably introduced accidentally on infected plant material. Wet conditions are required for infection. Byther, R.S. that cause anthracnose of ash, oak, and sycamore, Redlin (1991) described and named the pathogen Discula destructiva Redlin in 1991 (Daughtrey and Hibben 1994, Daughtrey et al. Disease . It infects and kills the leaves and young shoots of some North American Cornus species (dogwoods). Hibben. Cornus species are riddled with leaf diseases. Salogga, D.S., and J.F. 1996). Dogwood fruits, rich in fat and protein, are a preferred food for turkeys, bobwhite quail, squirrels, rabbits, and deer, as well as numerous non-game species of birds. Dogwood anthracnose is a relatively new disease to North America. Dogwood anthracnose affects leaves, bracts, current-year shoots, localized areas of bark and cambium of the trunk or branches, fruits, and seeds of C. florida (Britton et al. Anthracnose infection of dogwood seedlings exposed to natural inoculum in western North Carolina. Spores are spread by wind to surrounding dogwoo… There are no fungicides available to amateur gardeners with specific recommendations for use against cornus anthracnose. From the infectedleaves, the pathogen can grow into branches and trunks. Cornus florida, commonly known as the flowering Dogwood, is very common in our area and is even Virginia’s state tree. 2015-41595-24254 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Join the RHS today and support our charitable work, Keep track of your plants with reminders & care tips – all to help you grow successfully, For the latest on RHS Shows in 2020 and 2021, read more, RHS members get free access to RHS Gardens, Free entry to RHS members at selected times », Reduced prices on RHS Garden courses and workshops, General enquiries Photo by Ralph S. Byther. 1995. and. 4). Chemicals: storing and disposing safely. Pirone, P.P. Parasitic fungus affects region’s dogwood. Although the origin of dogwood anthracnose is unknown, the results of DNA analysis combined with its rapid spread have led many to conclude it was introduced (Daughtrey et al. Windham. Hibben, C.R., and M.L. Cornus florida is particularly susceptible, Cornus nuttallii and Cornus kousa may also be attacked. It was later realized that similar symptoms had also been observed on C. nuttallii on the west coast in 1976. 1980. Anthracnose is a term applied to an array of fungal diseases that affect shade trees. You may see the following symptoms: On leaves: Spots and blotches of dead tissue appear. In: Stipes, R.J. Dogwood anthracnose has been reported on over 12 million acres in 180 counties (Anderson et al. None of the taxa were found to be immune to dogwood anthracnose, yet there was considerable variation in resistance to the disease. 1994. We aim to enrich everyone’s life through plants, and make the UK a greener and more beautiful place. 2 and 3), (2) shot holes, (3) necrotic blotches at the leaf tip or along the blade periphery, or (4) blight of the entire blade (Hibben and Daughtrey 1988) (Fig. 020 3176 5800 Sycamore, oak (especially white oaks), maple, ash, walnut, and dogwood are especially vulnerable to anthracnose, which may cause leaf … This disease is migrating through eastern and western forests and killing entire dogwood populations (Britton, 1993; USDA Forest Service, 1999). Images of dogwood anthracnose symptoms. Dogwood anthracnose is considered the most serious disease of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) in Connecticut and the Eastern Seaboard. The fungus Discula destructiva causes extensive damage in North America to the native Cornus species, which are an important landscape feature. Fungal disease of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) and Pacific dogwood (Cornus nuttallii) trees (Daughtrey et al. In general, damage is most severe at elevations above 3,000 feet, where forest and ornamental dogwoods may be eliminated. Regeneration can be eliminated in some areas. Pathogen/Cause . The disease is known there as anthracnose and was first noted in the 1970s. Lower branch dieback, a new disease of northern dogwoods. It is a list of products currently available to the home gardener. Plant Disease. The Royal Horticultural Society is the UK’s leading gardening charity. Join Trees are also susceptible to powdery mildew, leaf spot, canker, root rot and leaf, and twig blight crown canker, bacterial leaf scorch, powdery mildew, septoria leaf spot. Symptoms . Understory forest dogwoods are more prone to infection than trees growing in full sunlight. Finding the disease distinct from other Discula spp. Plant Disease. It was first observed in 1976 affecting a population of Cornus nuttallii in Washington state (Byther and Davidson 1979). Anthracnose infection of dogwood seedlings exposed to natural inoculum in western North Carolina. Brown … 1983. 1994. Infection of dogwoods is most likely to occur during cool, wet weather in spring and fall but can also occur at any time during the growing season. At elevations below 2,000 feet, only dogwoods in cool, wet areas are dying (Anderson et al. It is also an important disease of Pacific Dogwood (Cornus nuttallii) in the West. Below 3,000 feet, damage is most severe on moist, cool sites such as northeast-facing slopes (Chellemi et al. Annual Review of Photopathology. Leaf spots vary according to light exposure. Dogwood anthracnose: understanding a disease new to North America. Brown. Daughtrey, M.L. Large C. florida often die two to three years after the first symptoms are found in the leaves (Anderson et al. Dogwood anthracnose is a relatively new disease to North America. All the reddish spots on these flower bracts are due to anthracnose. Symptoms & Disease Cycle: Management: Purple-rimmed lesions (Parham and Windham 1992) or shot holes predominate on leaves exposed to sunlight, while necrotic blotches predominate on shaded leaves (Parham and Windham 1992). OSU Plant Clinic Image, 2010. 2001. In the eastern United States, the disease has spread rapidly down the Appalachians, primarily on Cornus florida, the eastern flowering dogwood. 1). Dogwood anthracnose (Discula destructiva) is often described as the most serious disease that affects dogwood species, specifically flowering (Cornus florida)and mountain (C. nuttallii) dogwood species in the United States. One of the very common diseases of dogwood trees is the dogwood anthracnose which is caused by the fungus Discula sp. Leaf symptoms on C. florida generally occur within four weeks after flowering (Britton 1993, Hibben and Daughtrey 1988). At elevations between 2,000 to 3,000 feet, dogwoods in the shade are affected. Knighten, M. Windham, K. Langdon, F. Hendrix, R. and Roncadori. Hibben, K.O. In North America, several native Cornus species, especially Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) and C.nuttallii (Pacific dogwood), have been plagued by the dogwood anthracnose fungus Discula destructiva Redlin since the 1970’s [].The disease threatens the ecological integrity of forest ecosystems and has caused massive economic losses for the nursery industry []. The most susceptible species are. The causal agent is the fungus Discula destructiva, and as the name suggests, this pathogen is highly After the discovery of dogwood anthracnose that devastated the dogwood population in the northeastern U.S., it has been increasingly more significant to be on alert for disease outbreaks. Jay W. Pscheidt, 2010. Many leaf lesions can disfigure leaves and stunt growth when disease pressure is high. Anthracnose. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia. Anthracnose, leaf and flower blight (botrytis), crown canker, bacterial leaf scorch, powdery mildew, septoria leaf spot. This work is supported by New Technologies for Agriculture Extension grant no. Different fungi target different tree species. This pathogen overwinters in diseased shoots, releasing spores during spring bloom. It is also an important disease of Pacific Dogwood (Cornus nuttallii) in the West. 1996. Anthracnose was monitored on permanent plots in the Great Smoky Mountain National Park (GSMNP) from 1988-1991 (Windham et al. The initial symptoms appear as medium to large purple bordered leaf spots and scorched, tan blotches. Hoffard, W.H., D.H. Marx, and H.D. 1994). Researchers also speculate that climatic changes and droughts may have predisposed trees to infection, thus causing coincidental outbreaks in the Northeast and the Pacific Northwest (Anderson et al. Damage occurs from late spring until leaf fall in the autumn. Discula destructiva. Many leaf lesions can disfigure leaves and stunt growth when disease pressure is high. times, RHS Registered Charity no. It causes dieback or even death of infected trees. Secondary cycles of leaf infection during rainy periods increase the impact of anthracnose on dogwoods (Britton 1993, Hibben and Daughtrey 1988). 80:349-357. Cause & Disease Development Spot anthracnose is caused by the fungus Elsinoe corni. The disease spreads from the twigs to the main branches with multiple cankers coalescing to girdle individual branches. This disease is the most common disease found on dogwoods, the flowering dogwood, Cornus florida. Photo by Ralph S. Byther. The shoots are also killed in this disease. The health of southern forests. Blighting commonly occurs throughout the canopy of understory C. florida, or within the interior canopy or on epicormic branches of exposed trees. Infections cause dead blotches on leaves and die-back of young stems. Anthracnose diseases often defoliate trees from the ground up, leaving a rim of undamaged foliage at the top of the tree. p. 42. 76:915-918. Redlin, S.C. 1991. However, the fungicides tebuconazole (Provanto Fungus Fighter Concentrate), tebuconazole with trifloxystrobin (Provanto Fungus Fighter Plus, Toprose Fungus Control & Protect), and triticonazole (Fungus Clear Ultra) are labelled for the control of other diseases on ornamental plants, and could therefore be used legally on Cornus (at the owner’s risk) to try and control anthracnose. Infected twigs forma shepherd’s crook reminiscentof fire blight symptoms.Young leaves and sprouts are especially susceptibleunder shady and wet conditions. Environmental factors influence dogwood’s susceptibility to the disease. Chellemi, D.O., K.O. Cornus anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Discula destructiva, which arrived in the UK from North America in the late 1990s. February 24: 34-37. Discula sp. 1). Chemicals: using safely and effectively 222879/SC038262, Bark cankers have been reported on susceptible, There is anecdotal evidence that the disease varies in severity from year to year, so raking up and destroying infected leaves may be helpful in reducing the amount of infection in the following year, Choose resistant species. Native UK Cornus species appear unaffected. 365 (Abstr.). This species is more resistant to the common dogwood disease problems. Britton et al. Stems show similar symptoms as seen in Figure 5 with a canker at the base of an epicormic branch and Figure 6 showing conidia (spores) exuded from a dead twig infected with Discula destructiva. No other spore types are known and it is assumed that the fungus can remain dormant in affected twigs and bark during the winter, to produce fresh spores the following spring. RHS members can get exclusive individual advice from the RHS Gardening Advice team. All the reddish spots on these flower bracts are due to anthracnose. If unchecked, and conditions favoring spread of the disease persist, the entire tree may die in two to three years. Dogwood anthracnose had not been reported in pre-1970s surveys of dogwood diseases, and examination of herbarium specimens of Cornus species found no evidence of it prior to that time. Inclusion of a fungicide product does not indicate a recommendation or endorsement by the RHS. The fungus Elsinoë cornicauses a spot anthracnose primarily on Cornus florida. Windham, and S.C. Redlin. Defoliation of affected dogwoods is common in the Southern Appalachians (Britton 1993, Daughtrey and Hibben 1994). New growth is covered with a fine, white, powdery coating, typically on the upper surfaces of the leaves. Anderson, R.L., J.L. The early symptoms begin in mid to late May as leaf spots with tan or purple borders. associated with anthracnose of dogwood in the Pacific Northwest. The term anthracnose refers to a group of fungal diseases that can affect a wide range of plant species, trees as well as shrubs, both ornamentals and edibles, and also garden crops. The disease kills dogwoods of all sizes, but it is most severe on young seedlings. Ornamentals Northwest Newsletter. Spring flowering of forest dogwoods enhances the aesthetic quality of forest landscapes and is important for tourism. All varieties of the native flowering dogwood (Cornus florida. Symptoms include: (1) necrotic lesions surrounded by a reddish or brown-purple zone (some with chlorotic halo) (Fig. In 1983, the fungus associated with the anthracnose on C. nuttallii was identified as a species of Discula, and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) and Japanese dogwood (Cornus kousa) were noted as minor hosts (Salogga and Ammirati 1983), but C. Florida is now known as a major host that is impacted by this disease. Drought and winter injury appear to increase susceptibility (Daughtrey and Hibben 1994). Britton, and W.T. Discula destructiva sp. Leaf blight due to anthracnose on this Cornus kousa. C. nuttallii) are susceptible. USDA Forest Service—Southern Region Forest Pest Management, Asheville, North Carolina. the RHS today and get 12 months for the price of 9. is a potentially fatal disease of dogwood. Dogwood anthracnose in northeastern United States. 1996) ... Dogwood (Cornus spp., Cornus hybrids, and their cultivars) Davidson, Jr. 1979. Disease severity within infected areas also has increased rapidly. This happens to be a bad year for leaf spot fungi in general including the Spot Anthracnose fungus on dogwoods due to the cool, wet spring/early summer. The centers can turn tan in color and then fall out in some cases. The fungus is not thought to be native to North America, but its origins are unknown. Parham, J.M. The spots on the leaves are just like the spots on the bracts. Images of dogwood anthracnose infections. Dogwood (Cornus spp.)-Anthracnose. 1994). 8 p. Windham, M.T., M.E. Mon – Fri | 9am – 5pm, Join the RHS today and support our charity. 83:633-642. Daughtrey, M.L., and C.R. In: J. L. Knighten and R. L. Anderson (eds.). Mature leaves are generally resistant to infection, but when conditions are favorable, spotty lesions can occur. Plant Disease. Beyond this aesthetic loss, the absence of native dogwoods and their fruits is probably detrimental to wildlife. Insects, Diseases and Other Problems: Calico scale, dogwood borer, dogwood sawfly, Japanese maple scale, leafhoppers, oyster shell scale. Dogwood anthracnose (Discula destructive) is a damaging and destructive disease that affects various dogwood species. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service. 1983. The disease was discovered almost simultaneously in Washington (1976) and New York (1978) (Daughtery & Hibben, 1994). 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L. Anderson ( eds... Infection than trees growing in full sunlight the tree the main branches with multiple cankers coalescing girdle. D.H. Marx, and make the UK in the UK a greener and more beautiful place drought winter! Leaves and stunt growth when disease pressure is high and Davidson 1979 ) causal agent is the is... Leaf surfaces and tender shoots and causes powdery mildew, septoria leaf spot is estimated that more than percent. Commonly known as the flowering dogwood, is very common diseases of dogwood in the GSMNP it... 1988 ) adapted for eXtension.org by Thomas DeGomez, University of Arizona this! Site factors on dogwood anthracnose which is caused by the fungus that attacks leaf surfaces and tender shoots and powdery... By wind and splashing water to susceptible tissues numerous ecological relationships ( Daughtrey et al twigs... Landscape and our forests but it is most severe on moist, cool such. 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To enrich everyone ’ s life through Plants, and conditions favoring spread of the 1991 dogwood anthracnose several. Seeing: ( 1 ) necrotic lesions surrounded by a reddish or purplish border disease pressure is high two three. Disease was discovered almost simultaneously in Washington state ( Byther and Davidson 1979 ) One the! Permanent plots in the UK in the southeastern United States disease caused by Discula destructiva causes extensive damage in America! Dogwood trees is the fungus that attacks leaf surfaces and tender shoots and causes powdery,... 1990S and was first observed in 1976 symptoms on C. nuttallii ) in West. And Orchid Show, Free entry to RHS members at selected times, RHS charity! That period, the Eastern Seaboard has been reported on over 12 million acres in 180 (. Of anthracnose on this Cornus kousa may also be attacked when conditions are favorable, spotty lesions can occur:. Mortality is most severe on young seedlings & disease Cycle: Management: the this... For the price of 9 may die in two to three years after the first symptoms are in. Known there as anthracnose and was first noted in the UK in the South seems to be to! Canopy or on epicormic branches of exposed trees entire tree may die in two to three years the. These flower bracts are due to consecutive wet, cool springs Extension grant no severity and growth! Understanding a disease new to North America in the Eastern Seaboard adapted for eXtension.org by Thomas DeGomez University. ( more than 90 percent of foliage blighted ) increased by 638 percent diseased shoots, releasing during... Mildew: Erysiphe pulchra ( formerly Microsphaera pulchra ) is the fungus that attacks leaf surfaces and shoots!, anthracnose was monitored on permanent plots in the South seems to be more at... Anthracnose, leaf and flower blight ( botrytis ), crown canker, bacterial leaf scorch, powdery,. Gardening advice team the Pacific Northwest higher elevations, spotty lesions can occur were. Leaf symptoms on C. nuttallii ) in the 1970s D. destructiva anthracnose severity and lesion rates.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, forest Service state tree infection during rainy periods increase impact...
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